Inyito « Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi muri 1994 mu Rwanda » yemejwe na ONU igiye kugaragaza ukuri

18/05/2018, Aloys Musomesha

Hagati y’abanyarwanda hakunze kubaho impaka ari ku nyito nyayo y’ubwicanyi bwahekuye Urwanda muri 1994 na nyuma yaho, ari no ku mihango yo kwibuka abishwe.

Bamwe bagira bati: kubera ko abaguye muri jenoside yakozwe na bamwe mu bahutu atari abatutsi bonyine, iyo jenoside ntikwiye kwitwa ko yakorewe abatutsi gusa; bati ahubwo ikwiye kwitwa ko yakorewe abanyarwanda kuko hari abahutu n’abatwa nabo bishwe bayirwanya.

Abandi banyarwanda nabo bati hari n’ubundi bwicanyi ndimburambaga kandi ndengakamere bwahitanye abahutu bukozwe n’abatutsi b’inkotanyi muri uwo mwaka wa 1994 nabwo bugomba kwibukwa, nubwo butiswe – kandi bushobora kuzitwa – jenoside. Abarwanya icyo gitekerezo bati mwe « murashaka guhakana no gupfobya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ».

Abazize jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ntabwo ari abatutsi gusa

Nibutse ko abicanyi bo mu bwoko bw’abahutu bishe abatutsi babitaga IBYITSO by’inkotanyi cyangwa bakabaziza gusa ko bafite ubwoko bw’abatutsi kuko babusangiye n’inkotanyi zateye igihugu, nubwo ntaho bari bahuriye n’izo nkotanyi. Abicanyi bishe impinja, ibitambambuga batari bagira ubwenge bwo kumenya ubwoko icyaricyo, n’abandi batashoboraga kwitabara nk’ibimuga, abarwayi, abasaza n’abakecuru,… bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi.

Ariko tujye twibuka ko intandaro ya buriya bwicanyi bwose ari intambara y’inkotanyi kuko abategetse ubwo bwicanyi batinyaga gutsindwa iyo ntambara – y’abo bangiye gutaha ! – no kuva ku butegetsi bari bafite. Nkuko abantu benshi babyemeza rero, iyo iriya ntambara yatangijwe tariki ya 1 ukwakira 1990 itaza kubaho – ubutegetsi bugasangirwa -, jenoside ntiba yarabaye. Impamvu nyamukuru za buriya bwicanyi ni iza politiki n’inyota y’ubutegetsi.

Mu buryo bw’amategeko, mu manza z’inshinja-byaha, hashobora kubaho abafatanyacyaha (co-auteurs de l’infraction) n’ibyitso (complices de l’infraction) by’umunyacyaha. Abo bose ibyaha byabo biba bishingiye (bishamikiye) ku cyaha cy’umuntu wagikoze (l’infraction de l’auteur principal).

Kimwe nuko abo banyabyaha baba bahuriye ku cyaha kimwe, abarenganyijwe nabo baba basangiye akababaro kubera ko icyaha bakorewe ari kimwe (les victimes d’une même infraction).

Bityo rero, abarwanyije iyo jenoside bakicwa bazira gukiza abatutsi bahigwaga kubera ubwoko bwabo, bakanga kwivangura nabo, kimwe n’abanyepolitiki b’abahutu batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi kandi barwanyije uwo mugambi wo kwica abatutsi, abo bose bazize jenoside yakorewe abatutsi nubwo bo batari abatutsi, kuko nabo abicanyi babitaga IBYITSO BY’INKOTANYI Z’ABATUTSI, ari nayo mpamvu bakwiye gufatwa kimwe n’abatutsi bishwe, bakibukwa hamwe nabo.

ONU ifunguye inzira y’ubwumvikane ku nyito y’ubundi bwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu

Tariki ya 26 Mutarama 2018, Inteko Rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ONU yemeje itariki ya 7 Mata nk’umunsi mpuzamahanga wo kwibuka jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda muw’1994, kandi yibutsa ko bamwe mu bahutu n’abandi bantu barwanyije iyo jenoside nabo bishwe. Iyo nyito yasimbuye indi yari yaremejwe n’uwo Muryango w’Abibumbye tariki ya 23 Gashyantare 2004. Icyo gihe, ONU yari yaremeje ko tariki ya 7 Mata ari umunsi wo kwibuka jenoside yo muw’1994 mu Rwanda. Muri iyi nyito ya mbere, biragaragara ko ONU itasobanuraga abakorewe iyo jenoside abo aribo (les victimes du génocide) ari nayo mpamvu Leta y’Urwanda yasabye ko ihinduka, nubwo hari izindi mpamvu za politiki ziyongeraho.

Tutagendeye ku marangamutima ashingiye kuri politiki ya gipolitisiye (la politique politicienne) – kuko abapolitisiye (politiciens) batari mu butegetsi bwa Leta n’ababurimo hari byinshi batavugaho rumwe – iyi ngingo mu by’ukuri ifite ishingiro. ONU yashingiye ku mvugo y’Urukiko mpuzamahanga T.P.I.R.. (Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda) rwemeje kuwa 6 Kamena 2006 ko « bizwi na bose ko hagati y’itariki ya 6 Mata n’iya 17 Nyakanga 1994 mu Rwanda habereye jenoside yakorewe ubwoko bw’abatutsi » («…un fait de notoriété publique qu’entre le 6 avril et le 17 juillet 1994, un génocide a été perpétré au Rwanda contre le groupe ethnique tutsi »).

Uretse n’iyo mvugo ya T.P.I.R. kandi, sinzi niba hari umuntu wari mu Rwanda muri Mata, Gicurasi na Kamena 1994 wahakana ko abatutsi bishwe baziraga ko ari abatutsi gusa. Ikosa rikomeye urwo rukiko rwakoze ni uko rutanavuze ubundi bwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu bukozwe n’inkotanyi muri icyo gihe na nyuma yaho, ngo rube rwaranavuze uko ibyo byaha byitwa, bityo iyo mvugo nayo ngo ONU ibe yarayishingiyeho. Nanone uretse bamwe mu bapolitisiye kubera inyungu zabo, sinzi niba hari undi muntu wari mu Rwanda kiriya gihe – cyane aho inkotanyi zari zarafashe – ndetse na nyuma yaho, wahakana ko ubwo bwicanyi bwabayeho. Ijoro ribara uwariraye…

Kuba, muri iriya Nteko y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ONU, Abanyamerika batarashakaga ko iriya nyito ya mbere ihinduka , ni ukubera inyungu zabo za politiki (hagomba kuba hari ukuri batinyaga ko kuzagaragara), ntabwo ari ukurengera inyungu zacu Abanyarwanda. Hano umuntu akaba yakwibaza ahubwo impamvu Leta y’Urwanda na Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zitumvikanye ku mushinga wa kiriya cyemezo mbere y’uko gishyikirizwa Inteko Rusange w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ONU. Ariko, mu muhango wo KWIBUKA tariki ya 7 Mata 2018 mu Rwanda, byagaragaye ko hari ukundi ibyo bihugu byaje kwumvikana hagati aho …

Ariko nanone, « kwibutsa » ko bamwe mu bahutu n’abandi bantu barwanyije iyo jenoside nabo bishwe, ntibihagije. Uriya muryango ONU wagombaga kwemeza ko abo batari abatutsi bazize jenoside yakorewe abatutsi kandi ko nabo bagomba kwibukwa. Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Ibihugu by’Uburayi wo wifuzaga ko nabo bakwibukwa kimwe n’abatutsi. Nubwo icyemezo cyaje gutorwa, nta bwumvikane (consensus) bwabayeho. Wenda niyo mahirwe y’abanyarwanda !

Bityo uwo munsi uba wariswe: « umunsi mpuzamahanga wo kwibuka jenoside yakorewe abatutsi n’abayirwanyije mu Rwanda muw’1994 » , nubwo bidahagije kubera impamvu nza gusobanura.

Birababaje kuba abatari abatutsi bazize kurwanya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi badashyirwa ku mwanya umwe n’abatutsi bishwe ngo bibukirwe hamwe kandi muri ubwo bwicanyi barasangiye urwo rupfu, barapfuye rumwe. Mu by’ukuri, abongabo banze kwitandukanya n’abatutsi kubera ko bahuje ubumuntu, kuko bumvaga ari abantu nkabo, kandi ni byo koko.

Birababaje kandi kubona Umuryango w’abibumbye ONU tuzi ko ari wo ushyiraho amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu arwanya ivangura ariwo ushyiraho icyemezo kivangura abanyarwanda mu muhango wo kwibuka, nkaho badasangiye ubumuntu. Tuvugishije ukuri, abatari abatutsi bakijije abatutsi muri icyo gihe barushije ubutwari ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ONU ( Casques bleus) zatereranye abo batutsi. Umenya ari nayo mpamvu uwo muryango wagize isoni zo kwemeza ko abazize kurwanya iyo jenoside nabo bagomba kwibukwa.

Kubera izo mpamvu, abatutsi barokotse jenoside bakwiye kwifatanya n’abahutu babafashije kurokoka, kimwe n’abahutu barokowe n’abatutsi, hamwe n’abasirikare bo mu mpande zombi zarwanaga bakijije abantu, n’abandi banyarwanda ndetse na bamwe mu banyamahanga bashyigikiye ibyo bikorwa byo gutabarana mu bihe bikomeye, kugirango twongere dushyire hamwe ingufu zacu za kimuntu (la force de l’humanité) dushyize ku ruhande inyungu za politiki, maze tujye twibukira hamwe abacu bose bishwe. Nitwongere twange kwivangura maze twamagane ivanguramoko no mu mihango yo KWIBUKA.

Umuntu ni nk’undi

Ikindi ni uko Umuryango w’Abibumbye ONU utigeze uvuga ibyo kwibuka ubwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu na bamwe mu batutsi b’Inkotanyi babaziza ko ari abahutu mu Rwanda n’ahandi (nko muri Zaïre – Congo), kubera kubogama kwawo twamenyereye, cyane ko n’Urukiko mpuzamahanga TPIR (Tribunal Pénal International pour le Rwanda) washyizeho rutakurikiranye abo bicanyi. Ibyo bikaba bibangamira ubwiyunge nyakuri bw’abanyarwanda.

Nyamara raporo yakozwe na Komisariya nkuru ya ONU ishinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu (Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies aux Droits de l’Homme) yemeza ko ubwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu mu ntambara zo muri Congo Kinshasa nyuma ya 1994, bukozwe n’abasirikare b’inkotanyi, bushobora kwitwa jenoside buramutse bugeze imbere y’urukiko rubifiye ububasha. Abo se uwo muryango wumva bazibukwa ryari kandi ko wemera ko bishwe ? Tuzabanze dutegereze urwo rukiko ? Uzarushyiraho ryari ?

Inyito « Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi » yavugira n’abarokotse iyo jenoside batari abatutsi biramutse byemejwe ku mugaragaro kandi mu buryo busobanutse neza ko ababo nabo « bazize jenoside y’abatutsi » kuko bayirwanyaga (reconnaissance du statut de victimes du génocide des Tutsi aux non-Tutsis qui se sont opposés à ce génocide), kandi hakajyaho n’urukiko ruburanisha biriya byaha ONU yemeza ko bishobora kwitwa jenoside y’abahutu n’ubundi bwicanyi ndimburambaga bwakorewe abahutu mu Rwanda, bukozwe n’Inkotanyi. Bityo akababaro k’abo bahutu nabo kaba kwumvikanye.

Ibyo ari byo byose, kiriya cyemezo cya ONU cyo kuwa 26 Mutarama 2018 gifunguye ku mugaragaro inzira y’ubwumvikane (consensus) ku nyito y’ubundi bwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu, nyuma ya za raporo zatangajwe mu bihe binyuranye. Iyo nyito yo ikwiye kuzemezwa n’Umuryango w’Abiyunze w’Abanyarwanda. Niyo mpamvu mbona kiriya cyemezo cya ONU kigiye gutuma ukuri kugaragara. Duhorane icyizere.

Dukeneye ubutabera burengera bose, hose kandi igihe cyose, buzageza abanyarwanda twese ku bwiyunge nyakuri.

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